Polyurethanes & Foams

Sub-Category: Chemsitry | Flexible Polyurethanes | Insultation | Plastics Packaging | Quality Control | Rigid Polyurethanes | Troubleshooting

February 2022

How Polyol Selection Affects PU Performance
Date: 15 Feb 2022
Time: 3pm CET
Language: English
Code: BuffPack
Format: Recorded
ID: KH0014
Registration Fee: Member: 100 US$
Non-Member: 167 US$
Group (5 Pax): 400 US$
To Register: Registration Form
[Details]
Description: Polyols are the largest volume raw material used in polyurethanes. Cost and Performance are the two biggest factors for determining the best polyol for a specific polyurethane application. The polyol’s reactivity, based on the position of the OH groups, the ester or ether chemistry, the linearity, and the aromatic vs. aliphatic chemistry all play a part in defining PU properties and performance for a particular polyurethane application. This webinar is designed to provide the polyurethane formulator with a fundamental understanding of how these factors should be considered when formulating polyurethanes from a Structure/Property perspective. The webinar content includes: # Discussions of molecular architecture # Polyol types and their molecular structure : Polyether polyols, Polyester Polyols, Specialty polyols # Advantages and Disadvantages of polyol types # Morphology and molecular motion # Hydrogen bonding within polyurethanes # Discussion of specific polyurethane examples and the measurement of their physical properties
Expert: Joseph Marcinko, Ph.D. Principal Scientist and President of Polymer Synergies LLC. Dr. Marcinko has over 35 years of industrial R&D, research management, and academic experience. His interests and expertise are in the areas of polyurethane chemistry, bio-polymers, adhesion science, wood composites, polymer characterization, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and polymer structure-property relationships. He is an adjunct professor and a developer of industrial short courses related to polyurethane and polymer chemistry, adhesion science and industrial problem solving. Dr. Marcinko has authored over 50 peer reviewed publications, and has 17 patents and 2 patents pending. Educational Summary: Ph.D. - Chemistry, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, 1992; M.S. - Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 1990; B.S. - Chemistry; B.S. - Biology, King's College, Wilkes-Barre, PA, 1983

Memory (Viscoelastic) Foams Designs and Applications
Date: 22 February 2022 (Tuesday)
Time: 10.00 am CST (US Time)
~60 Min
Language: English
ID: KH0544
Registration Fee: Member: 100 US$
Non-Member: 167 US$
Group (5 Pax): 400 US$
To Register: Registration Form
[Details]
Description: Flexible polyurethane foams are produced starting with liquid monomeric components that undergo cross-linking reactions to form thermoset polymeric foams as a final products. Flexible polyurethane foams are a class thermosetting polymeric foams. All the attributes ascribed to the thermosetting polymeric processes are applicable in flexible PU foams. The uniqueness of flexible polyurethane foams is found in their elastomeric response at use temperatures between 0 to 100°C. These foams are designed to offer a range of resiliency or elasticity as well as softness for comfort, load bearing and protection. The tools utilized to achieve these aims are the appropriately chosen polyols and isocyanates to meet the desired level of covalent cross-links, as well as amine producing moieties to produce polyurea hard segments that augment the physical and mechanical properties of the underlying polymer and final foam. There are three categories of flexible foam. Resiliency or % ball rebound is used to characterize these different classes. Resiliency below 10% rebound is categorized as viscoelastic (memory) foams, resiliency between 40 to 55% is used to define slab stock flexible foams, and finally Resiliency greater than 55% is used to define high resiliency or HR foams. The Webinar will highlight the design considerations to achieving the various classes of flexible foams and the processes to produce them including applications that utilize them.
Expert: Dr. Bernard E. Obi is a retired dynamic polymers/materials scientist with extensive expertise in cellular materials in general; but particularly in polyurethane foams processes and applications. He has extensive expertise in both rigid and flexible polyurethane foams. Within the flexible PU foams space, the expertise encompass high resiliency (HR), slab-stock and viscoelastic or memory foams. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering and worked for The Dow Chemical Company from July 1985 to July 2015. Apart from polyurethanes technology; he also has significant expertise in free radical dispersion/suspension polymerization, surface and interfacial science, micro & macro-structure-property-performance relationships, materials development, composites, elastomers and rubbers. He authored a text book on Polymeric Foams Published December 7th 2017 by Elsevier Publishers. Dr. Obi operates his consulting company (PolyFoam Consulting LLC) out of the Houston area in Texas USA, and is engaged in providing consulting services to the polymeric foams industries and businesses.

April 2022

High Resiliency Foams Designs and Applications
Date: 26 April 2022 (Tuesday)
Time: 10.00 am CST (US Time)
~60 Min
Language: English
ID: KH0545
Registration Fee: Member: 100 US$
Non-Member: 167 US$
Group (5 Pax): 400 US$
To Register: Registration Form
[Details]
Description: High Resiliency foam also known as HR foam is another class of flexible polyurethane foams which in contrast to the viscoelastic foam is designed for very high ball rebound, hence high resiliency. As with all flexible foams, they are also produced starting with liquid monomeric components via cross-linking reactions to form the final products. The uniqueness of HR polyurethane foams is found in their elastomeric response at use temperatures between 0 to 100°C when properly designed. HR foams are designed to offer very high resiliency measured by relatively very high percent ball rebound in the use temperature range particularly near room temperature i.e. 20 °C. The manifestation of this high resiliency is a foam product that is fast to respond to deformations. HR foams are used in applications that require low energy absorption, as in automotive seating etc. This is in contract to VE foams that are designed for high energy absorption. The contrast can be observed by the hysteresis profile of their respective stress-strain curves. The tools utilized to achieve the properties and performance attributes of HR foams are the appropriately chosen polyols and isocyanates to meet the desired level of covalent cross-links, as well as amine producing moieties to produce polyurea hard segments that augment the physical and mechanical properties of the underlying polymer and final foam. The key to achieving the high ball rebound or high resiliency is designing the polymer to have a very low damping factor at the use temperature region. This is achieved by having a very low tan-d peak located at the lowest temperature possible. The Webinar will highlight the design considerations to achieving polymer design targets for HR behavior as well as other difficulties that come about by virtue of such formulation designs and how to manage them.
Expert: Dr. Bernard E. Obi is a retired dynamic polymers/materials scientist with extensive expertise in cellular materials in general; but particularly in polyurethane foams processes and applications. He has extensive expertise in both rigid and flexible polyurethane foams. Within the flexible PU foams space, the expertise encompass high resiliency (HR), slab-stock and viscoelastic or memory foams. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering and worked for The Dow Chemical Company from July 1985 to July 2015. Apart from polyurethanes technology; he also has significant expertise in free radical dispersion/suspension polymerization, surface and interfacial science, micro & macro-structure-property-performance relationships, materials development, composites, elastomers and rubbers. He authored a text book on Polymeric Foams Published December 7th 2017 by Elsevier Publishers. Dr. Obi operates his consulting company (PolyFoam Consulting LLC) out of the Houston area in Texas USA, and is engaged in providing consulting services to the polymeric foams industries and businesses.

June 2022

Rigid Polyurethanes Foams Designs and Applications
Date: 29 June 2022 (Wednesday)
Time: 10.00 am CST (US Time)
~60 Min
Language: English
ID: KH0546
Registration Fee: Member: 100 US$
Non-Member: 167 US$
Group (5 Pax): 400 US$
To Register: Registration Form
[Details]
Description: Rigid polyurethane foams as the name implies are high modulus (hard) closed celled foams that are predominately used for thermal insulation applications. They are in vast contrast to all flexible polyurethane foams which are soft and are designed to have the maximum open cell content possible. By contrast, rigid PU foams are designed to retain their blowing gas by having the maximum closed cell content possible. This provides the high insulation or low thermal conductivity desired. As with all polyurethane foams which are derived from thermoset polymers, they are also produced starting with liquid monomeric components via cross-linking reactions to form the final products. The uniqueness of Rigid polyurethane foams is found in two main properties namely, high closed cell content (BA gas retention) and very high modulus (hardness). Rigid polyurethane foams are glassy materials at use temperature and undergo brittle failure under stress. The tools utilized to achieve the properties and performance attributes of Rigid PU foams are the appropriately chosen polyols and isocyanates to meet the desired level of covalent cross-links, as well as amine producing moieties to produce polyurea hard segments that augment the physical and mechanical properties of the underlying polymer and final foam. The key to achieving the high modulus (rigidity) is designing the polymer to have the tan-d peak located at the highest temperature possible, (typically > 150 °C). The Webinar will highlight the design considerations to achieving polymer design targets for Rigid PU foam behavior as well as other difficulties that come about by virtue of such formulation designs and how to manage them.
Expert: Dr. Bernard E. Obi is a retired dynamic polymers/materials scientist with extensive expertise in cellular materials in general; but particularly in polyurethane foams processes and applications. He has extensive expertise in both rigid and flexible polyurethane foams. Within the flexible PU foams space, the expertise encompass high resiliency (HR), slab-stock and viscoelastic or memory foams. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering and worked for The Dow Chemical Company from July 1985 to July 2015. Apart from polyurethanes technology; he also has significant expertise in free radical dispersion/suspension polymerization, surface and interfacial science, micro & macro-structure-property-performance relationships, materials development, composites, elastomers and rubbers. He authored a text book on Polymeric Foams Published December 7th 2017 by Elsevier Publishers. Dr. Obi operates his consulting company (PolyFoam Consulting LLC) out of the Houston area in Texas USA, and is engaged in providing consulting services to the polymeric foams industries and businesses.

August 2022

RheoKinetics Measurements in Polyurethane Foaming Processes
Date: 23 August 2022 (Tuesday)
Time: 10.00 am CST (US Time)
~60 Min
Language: English
ID: KH0547
Registration Fee: Member: 100 US$
Non-Member: 167 US$
Group (5 Pax): 400 US$
To Register: Registration Form
[Details]
Description: All polyurethane foaming reactions start from flowable liquid monomeric components, and ending in polymers with a variety of viscoelastic properties, from soft rubbery to hard brittle solids. The progress from liquid to solid under the foam expansion process is complex and requires full understanding in order to effect optimal cellular properties outcomes. Rheokinetics as the name implies is the study of real time evolution of the polymerization reactions and rheological properties during the foaming process. There are various tools and techniques used to simultaneously follow the polymerization reaction kinetics as well as the rheological properties evolution. The data obtained from such analysis is useful in the proper design of formulations in order to balance the blowing and gelling processes for the right drainage. In the case of rigid polyurethane foams, beyond the proper drainage to minimize cell opening whilst achieving the lowest density possible; this type of data also assist in understanding the mold filling process. If the gelling reaction is too fast, the mold will not be adequately filled and a higher density will also result leading to poor thermal insulation performance. On the other hand, in the case of flexible polyurethane foams where open cell content is a premium, understanding the speed of the gelling reaction vis a vis the foam expansion or blowing reaction is critical to achieve maximum cell opening whilst having optimal cellular properties. The Webinar will highlight the tools and methodologies employed in studying the rheokinetics of the polyurethane foaming processes, and how this could help producers optimally design their formulation.
Expert: Dr. Bernard E. Obi is a retired dynamic polymers/materials scientist with extensive expertise in cellular materials in general; but particularly in polyurethane foams processes and applications. He has extensive expertise in both rigid and flexible polyurethane foams. Within the flexible PU foams space, the expertise encompass high resiliency (HR), slab-stock and viscoelastic or memory foams. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering and worked for The Dow Chemical Company from July 1985 to July 2015. Apart from polyurethanes technology; he also has significant expertise in free radical dispersion/suspension polymerization, surface and interfacial science, micro & macro-structure-property-performance relationships, materials development, composites, elastomers and rubbers. He authored a text book on Polymeric Foams Published December 7th 2017 by Elsevier Publishers. Dr. Obi operates his consulting company (PolyFoam Consulting LLC) out of the Houston area in Texas USA, and is engaged in providing consulting services to the polymeric foams industries and businesses.

October 2022

Surfactancy in Polyurethane Foams and Surface Voids
Date: 25 October 2022 (Tuesday)
Time: 10.10 am CST (US Time)
~60 Min
Language: English
ID: KH0548
Registration Fee: Member: 100 US$
Non-Member: 167 US$
Group (5 Pax): 400 US$
To Register: Registration Form
[Details]
Description: All polyurethane foaming reactions start from flowable liquid monomeric components, and end in polymers with a variety of viscoelastic properties, from soft rubbery to hard brittle solids. The progress from liquid to solid under the foam expansion process is complex and requires full understanding in order to effect optimal cellular properties outcomes. Surfactancy deals with the processes that aid in the nucleation of bubbles, followed by the stabilization of the expanding liquid polyurethane foaming matrix early in the foaming process where coalescence and foam collapse is extremely likely without the use of surface active agents. The role of surface active agents or surfactants in nucleating and stabilizing the liquid PU foam will be reviewed here, including the structure of surfactants used in PU foaming and the role of these structures in the nucleation and then stabilization of the PU foams. Mechanisms involved in nucleation and stabilization will be fully covered. The Webinar will highlight the role of surfactants in PU foaming processes and their nucleation and stabilization mechanisms. How this influence cellular morphology will be discussed as well.
Expert: Dr. Bernard E. Obi is a retired dynamic polymers/materials scientist with extensive expertise in cellular materials in general; but particularly in polyurethane foams processes and applications. He has extensive expertise in both rigid and flexible polyurethane foams. Within the flexible PU foams space, the expertise encompass high resiliency (HR), slab-stock and viscoelastic or memory foams. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering and worked for The Dow Chemical Company from July 1985 to July 2015. Apart from polyurethanes technology; he also has significant expertise in free radical dispersion/suspension polymerization, surface and interfacial science, micro & macro-structure-property-performance relationships, materials development, composites, elastomers and rubbers. He authored a text book on Polymeric Foams Published December 7th 2017 by Elsevier Publishers. Dr. Obi operates his consulting company (PolyFoam Consulting LLC) out of the Houston area in Texas USA, and is engaged in providing consulting services to the polymeric foams industries and businesses.

December 2022

Thermoplastics Foams Processing Fundamentals
Date: 12 December 2022 (Monday)
Time: 10.00 am CST (US Time)
~60 Min
Language: English
Code: BuffPack
ID: KH0549
Registration Fee: Member: 100 US$
Non-Member: 167 US$
Group (5 Pax): 400 US$
To Register: Registration Form
[Details]
Description: In contrast to thermosetting foaming processes which start from flowable liquid monomeric components, and end in solid thermoset cellular polymers; thermoplastic foams begin with fully formed polymers. Unlike thermoset polymers whose structures are practically locked-in with covalent cross-links, and therefore not reprocess-able, thermoplastic polymers are those which could be easily reprocessed through softening by applying heat via melting or devitrification. Thermoplastic foaming therefore requires starting with a solid polymer, softening it through melting or devitrification followed by bubble nucleation and foam expansion with both physical and chemical blowing agents that are either dissolved under high pressure or injected into the polymer during foaming process. Surface active agents are not typically required or used in thermoplastic foaming. Extrusion devices that use friction and pressure to melt and dissolve the blowing agents are often used for crystalline polymers. For amorphous polymers which are glassy above ambient temperature, heat is applied to the polymer to devitrify the polymer and then foaming expansion takes place on softening. In both cases, the end of foam expansion is achieved when the solidification is achieved either through recrystallization for crystalline polymers, or vitrification of glassy polymers. The Webinar will fully cover the fundamentals of thermoplastic foaming processes. Some of the contrasting features between thermoplastic and thermoset foaming will also be highlighted.
Expert: Dr. Bernard E. Obi is a retired dynamic polymers/materials scientist with extensive expertise in cellular materials in general; but particularly in polyurethane foams processes and applications. He has extensive expertise in both rigid and flexible polyurethane foams. Within the flexible PU foams space, the expertise encompass high resiliency (HR), slab-stock and viscoelastic or memory foams. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering and worked for The Dow Chemical Company from July 1985 to July 2015. Apart from polyurethanes technology; he also has significant expertise in free radical dispersion/suspension polymerization, surface and interfacial science, micro & macro-structure-property-performance relationships, materials development, composites, elastomers and rubbers. He authored a text book on Polymeric Foams Published December 7th 2017 by Elsevier Publishers. Dr. Obi operates his consulting company (PolyFoam Consulting LLC) out of the Houston area in Texas USA, and is engaged in providing consulting services to the polymeric foams industries and businesses.